CRP is an acute phase protein predominately synthesized in hepatocytes in response to IL-6.
CRP is a sensitive systemic marker of acute inflammation, infection, and tissue damage
CRP levels are positively correlated with lung lesions and disease severity. Thus it is a predictor of disease severity in early Covid.
CRP>10 in asymptomatic patients could indicate pneumonia
D-dimer is a protein fragment formed from the breakdown of blood clots.
Covid -19 infections are a state which encourages clot formation
Clots in the lungs can lead to severe disease and oxygen requirement
Clots in the heart and brain can also occur in covid 19
D-Dimer is a marker of clot formation and therefore of disease severity
IL-6 is an important cytokine and mediator of inflammation, auto-immunity and acute-phase response.
High levels of IL-6 are associated with pulmonary inflammation and extensive lung damage.
The Cytokine Storm occurring between day 7-12 of Covid infections causing lung and systemic lesions is largely mediated by IL-6
IL-6 levels on day 8-14 are the best predictor of the impending cytokine storm.
Elevated troponin levels are frequent in patients with COVID-19 and significantly associated with fatal outcomes.
Several mechanisms may explain this phenomenon: viral myocarditis, cytokine-driven myocardial damage, microangiopathy, and unmasked CAD.
Troponin 1 >0.04 ng/ml is remarkable
NT- pro BNP is a peptide secreted by the heart and it helps in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance.
NT-proBNP level are positively correlated with the makers of cardiac failure and systemic inflammation in Covid infections.
It is strongly and independently associated with mortality.
NT-pro BNP >125 pg/mL is remarkable
Serum Ferretin is a protein which stores haemoglobin.
It is also an acute phase reactant and is actively secreted by macrophages during severe Covid infections.
It is also a surrogate marker for the cytokine storm and severe inflammation
Serum Ferritin >300ng/ml is remarkable