• CRP is an acute phase protein predominately synthesized in hepatocytes in response to IL-6.

  • CRP is a sensitive systemic marker of acute inflammation, infection, and tissue damage

  • CRP levels are positively correlated with lung lesions and disease severity. Thus it is a predictor of disease severity in early Covid.

CRP>10 in asymptomatic patients could indicate pneumonia

  • D-dimer is a protein fragment formed from the breakdown of blood clots.

  • Covid -19 infections are a state which encourages clot formation

  • Clots in the lungs can lead to severe disease and oxygen requirement

  • Clots in the heart and brain can also occur in covid 19

  • D-Dimer is a marker of clot formation and therefore of disease severity

  • IL-6 is an important cytokine and mediator of inflammation, auto-immunity and acute-phase response.

  • High levels of IL-6 are associated with pulmonary inflammation and extensive lung damage.

  • The Cytokine Storm occurring between day 7-12 of Covid infections causing lung and systemic lesions is largely mediated by IL-6

  • IL-6 levels on day 8-14 are the best predictor of the impending cytokine storm.

  • Elevated troponin levels are frequent in patients with COVID-19 and significantly associated with fatal outcomes.

  • Several mechanisms may explain this phenomenon: viral myocarditis, cytokine-driven myocardial damage, microangiopathy, and unmasked CAD.

Troponin 1 >0.04 ng/ml is remarkable

  • NT- pro BNP is a peptide secreted by the heart and it helps in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance.

  • NT-proBNP level are positively correlated with the makers of cardiac failure and systemic inflammation in Covid infections.

  • It is strongly and independently associated with mortality.

NT-pro BNP >125 pg/mL is remarkable

  • Serum Ferretin is a protein which stores haemoglobin.

  • It is also an acute phase reactant and is actively secreted by macrophages during severe Covid infections.

  • It is also a surrogate marker for the cytokine storm and severe inflammation

Serum Ferritin >300ng/ml is remarkable

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