About Endoscopy


An upper endoscopy is a procedure used to visually examine your upper digestive system with a tiny camera on the end of a long, flexible tube. A specialist in diseases of the digestive system (gastroenterologist) uses an endoscopy to diagnose and, sometimes, treat conditions that affect the esophagus, stomach and beginning of the small intestine (duodenum).

The medical term for an upper endoscopy is esophagogastroduodenoscopy. You may have an upper endoscopy done in your doctor's office, an outpatient surgery center or a hospital.

An endoscopy is sometimes combined with other procedures, such as an ultrasound. An ultrasound probe may be attached to the endoscope to create specialized images of the wall of your esophagus or stomach. An endoscopic ultrasound may also help your doctor create images of hard-to-reach organs, such as your pancreas. Newer endoscopes use high-definition video to provide clearer images.

Many endoscopes allow your doctor to use technology called narrow band imaging, which uses special light to help better detect precancerous conditions, such as Barrett's esophagus.


Endoscopy is useful for investigating many systems within the human body; these areas include:

  • Gastrointestinal tract: esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (esophagogastroduodenoscopy), small intestine (enteroscopy), large intestine/colon (colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy), bile duct, rectum (rectoscopy), and anus (anoscopy).

  • Respiratory tract: Nose (rhinoscopy), lower respiratory tract (bronchoscopy).

  • Ear: Otoscopy

  • Urinary tract: Cystoscopy

  • Female reproductive tract (gynoscopy): Cervix (colposcopy), uterus (hysteroscopy), fallopian tubes (falloposcopy).

  • Through a small incision: Abdominal or pelvic cavity (laparoscopy), interior of a joint (arthroscopy), organs of the chest (thoracoscopy and mediastinoscopy).

Pre-Endoscopy Preparation

It’s important to prepare for an upper GI endoscopy to ensure the procedure goes smoothly. Your doctor will give you specific instructions on how to prepare for your endoscopy, but here are some general tips that can help make sure you’re ready-

1. Discuss medical conditions or problems

Make sure to tell your doctor if you’re pregnant or have any health conditions, such as heart disease or cancer. This information helps your doctor know whether to take any necessary precautions to perform the procedure as safely as possible.

2. Mention medications and allergies

You should also tell your doctor about any allergies you have and about any prescription and over-the-counter medications you’re taking. Your doctor may tell you to change your dosage or to stop taking certain medications before the endoscopy. Some medications can increase your risk for bleeding during the procedure. These medications include:

  • anti-inflammatory medications

  • warfarin (Coumadin)

  • heparin

  • aspirin

  • • any blood thinners

Any medications that cause drowsiness can interfere with the sedatives that the procedure will require. Antianxiety medications and many antidepressants could affect your response to the sedative.

If you take insulin or other medications to control diabetes, it’s important to make a plan with your doctor so your blood sugar doesn’t get too low.

Don’t make any changes to your daily dosage unless your doctor tells you to do so.

3. Know the risks of the procedure

Make sure you understand the risks of the procedure and the complications that might occur. Complications are rare, but can include the following:

  • Aspiration occurs when food or liquid gets into the lungs. This can happen if you eat or drink before the procedure. Make sure to follow your doctor’s instructions about fasting to prevent this complication.

  • An adverse reaction may happen if you’re allergic to certain medications, such as the sedatives you’re given to relax during the procedure. These drugs can also interfere with other medication you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you’re taking.

  • Bleeding can occur if polyps are removed or if a biopsy is performed. However, bleeding is usually minor and can easily be remedied.

  • Tearing can happen in the area being examined. However, this is highly unlikely.

4. Arrange for a ride home

You’ll likely be given a narcotic and a sedative to help you relax during the endoscopy. You shouldn’t drive after the procedure because these drugs will make you drowsy. Arrange to have someone pick you up and drive you home. Some medical centers won’t allow you to have the procedure unless you arrange for a ride home ahead of time.


5. Don’t eat or drink

You shouldn’t eat or drink anything after midnight the night before the procedure. This includes gum or mints. However, you can usually have clear liquids after midnight up to six hours before the endoscopy if your procedure is in the afternoon. Clear liquids include:

  • water

  • coffee without cream

  • apple juice

  • clear soda

  • broth

You should avoid drinking anything red or orange.

6. Dress comfortably

Although you’ll be given a medication to help you relax, an endoscopy can still cause some discomfort. Make sure to wear comfortable clothes and avoid wearing jewelry. You’ll be asked to remove glasses or dentures before the procedure.


7. Bring any necessary forms

Make sure to fill out the consent form and any other paperwork that your doctor has requested. Prepare all forms the night before the procedure, and put them in your bag so you don’t forget to bring them with you.